Dr. Gallo obtained his BA at Hampshire College (Amherst, MA, 1990) performing a research thesis on the ontogeny of play behavior in mammals. He then obtained the Ph.D. (1996) at the University of Illinois at Chicago working in the laboratory of Dr. E.D. Pollack investigating the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of neuronal growth cone motility. He was then a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. P.C. Letourneau (1996-2002), where he continued his research into the cytoskeletal basis of growth cone motility. Gallo joined the faculty at Drexel College of Medicine in 2002.
The laboratory uses a variety of techniques to investigate the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton in the context of development and the response of neurons to injury. For functional analysis of the roles of specific molecules in neurons we use a variety of molecular, biochemical and pharmacological approaches. Given that our interest is in neuronal motility, our final readout is almost invariably from imaging techniques (e.g., live imaging of actin and microtubule dynamics in neurons). Currently the laboratory is focusing on the signaling mechanisms of nerve growth factor and semaphorin 3A trying to experimentally dissect the relevance of identified signaling pathways to specific forms of cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. In addition, we are also investigating issues related to the mechanisms of the axonal transport of the cytoskeleton. Finally, a third venue of research in the laboratory deals with the cytoskeletal basis of the neuronal response to injury. For these studies the laboratory collaborates with departmental members (Dr. J. houle and Dr. R. Raghupathi) and Dr. K. Barbee (School of Bioengineering).
"Interactive Image Analysis Programs for Quantifying Injury-induced Axonal Beading and Microtubule Disruption"
Kilinc D, Gallo G and Barbee K
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, in press, 2009.
"Myosin II Negatively Regulates Minor Process Extension and the Temporal Development of Neuronal Polarity"
Kollins K, Hu J, Bridgman PC, Huang Y-Q and Gallo G
Dev. Neurobiol, in press. 2009.
"O-GlcNAc Post-translational Modifications Regulate the Entry of Neurons into an Axon Branching Program"
Francisco H, Kollins K, Varghis N, Vocadlo D, Vosseller K and Gallo G
Developmental Neurobiology, in press. 2009.
"Kinesin-5 is esstential for growth cone turning"
Nadar VC, Ketschek A, Myers KA, Gallo G and Baas PW
Current Biology, 18(24):1972-7, 2008
"Mechanically-induced Membrane Poration Causes Axonal Beading and Localized Cytoskeletal Damage"
Kilinc D, Gallo G and Barbee KA
Exp. Neurol. 212(2):422-30, 2008.
"Semaphorin 3A Inhibits ERM Protein Phosphorylation in Growth Cone Filopodia Through Inactivation of PI3K"
Developmental Neurobiology, 68(7):926-33, 2008.
"Regulation of Actomyosin Contractility by PI3K in Sensory Axons"
Orlova I, Silver L, Gallo G
Developmental Neurobiology. 67:1843-51, 2007.
"Poloxamer 188 Reduces Axonal Beading Following Mechanical Trauma to Cultured Neurons"
Kilinc D, Gallo G, Barbee K
Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Cité Internationale, Lyon, France, August 23-26, 2007. Pg. 3595-98.
"Regulation of Axon Guidance and Extension by 3-Dimensional Constraints"
Francisco H, Yellen B, Halverson D, Friedman G, Gallo G
Biomaterials, 28:3398-3407, 2007.
"Axon Extension in the Fast and Slow Lanes: Substratum Dependent Engagement of Myosin II Functions"
Ketschek A, Jones SJ, Gallo G
Developmental Neurobiology. 67(10):1305-20, 2007
"RhoA-kinase Coordinates F-actin Organization and Myosin II Activity During Semaphorin-IIIA Induced Axon Retraction"
J. Cell Sci. 119(16):3413-23, 2006.
"Developmental Regulation of Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Absence of Growth Cones"
Jones S, Selzer M, Gallo G
J. Neurobiology. 66(14):1630-1645.
"Extracellular muscle myosin II promotes sensory axon formation"
Silver L and Gallo G
DNA and Cell Biology 24(7):438-445, 2005.
"Axon growth and recovery of function supported by human bone marrow stromal cells in the injured spinal cord exhibit donor variations"
Neuhuber B, Himes T, Shumsky J, Gallo G, and Fischer I
Brain Res. 1035(1):73-85, 2005.
"p75NTR signaling regulates filopodial dynamics through modulating RhoA activity"
Gehler S, Gallo G, Veien E and Letourneau PC
J. Neurosci. 2004 24(18):4363-72, 2004.
"Re-evaluation of in vitro differentiation protocols for bone marrow stromal cells: Disruption of actin cytoskeleton induces rapid morphologicalchanges and mimics neuronal phenotype"
Neuhuber B, Gallo G, Howard L, Kostura L, Mackay A and Fischer I
J. Neurosci. Res. 77(2):192-204, 2004.
"Myosin II activity is required for severing-induced axon retraction in vitro"
Exp. Neurology 189(1):112-121, 2004.
"Bi-directional inhibitory interactions between metanephros and lumbosacral nerves in vitro"
Silver LD, Qiang L, Loudon R and Gallo G
Developmental Dynamics, 231(1):190-198, 2004.
"Actin turnover is required to prevent axon retraction driven by endogenous actomyosin contractility"
Gallo G, Yee HF, Jr, and Letourneau PC
J. Cell Biol. 158(7):1219-28, 2002.
"Rac1-mediated endocytosis during ephrin-A2- and semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse"
Jurney WM, Gallo G, Letourneau PC and McLoon SC
J. Neurosci. 22(14):6019-28, 2002.
"Transient PKA activity is required for initiation but not maintenance of BDNF-mediated protection from nitric oxide-induced growth-cone collapse"
Gallo G, Ernst AF, McLoon SC, Letourneau PC
J. Neurosci. 22(12):5016-23, 2002.
"Stabilization of growing retinal axons by the combined signaling of nitric oxide and brain-derived neurotrophic factor";
Ernst AF, Gallo G, Letourneau PC and McLoon SC
J. Neurosci. 20(4):1458-69, 2002.
"Different contributions of microtubule dynamics and transport to the growth of axons and collateral sprouts"
Gallo G and Letounreau PC
J. Neurosci. 19(10):3860-73, 1999.
"Localized sources of neurotrophins initiate axon collateral sprouting"
Gallo G and Letourneau PC
J. Neurosci. 18(14):5403-14, 1998.
"Involvement of microtubules in the regulation of neuronal growth cone morphologic remodeling"
J. Neurobiol. 35(2):121-40, 1998.
"The trkA receptor mediates growth cone turning toward a localized source of nerve growth factor"
Gallo G, Lefcort FB and Letourneau PC
J. Neurosci. 17(14):5445-54, 1997.
"Temporal regulation of growth cone lamellar protrusion and the influence of target tissue"
Gallo, G and Pollack, ED
J. Neurobiol. 33(7):929-44, 1997.
"Cyclic remodelling of growth cone lamellae and the effect of target tissue"
Gallo G and Pollack ED
Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 85(1):140-5, 1995.